Volcanism is a natural climate forcing causing short-term variations in temperatures. Histories of volcanic eruptions are needed to quantify their role in climate variability and assess human impacts. We present two new seasonally resolved, annually dated non-sea-salt sulfur records from polar ice cores—WAIS Divide (WDC06A) from West Antarctica spanning 408 B.C.E. to 2003 C.E. and NEEM (NEEM-2011-S1) from Greenland spanning 78 to 1997 C.E.—both analyzed using high-resolution continuous flow analysis coupled to two mass spectrometers. The high dating accuracy allowed placing the large bi-hemispheric deposition event ascribed to the eruption of Kuwae in Vanuatu (previously thought to be 1452/1453 C.E. and used as a tie-point in ice core dating) into the year 1458/1459 C.E. This new age is consistent with an independent ice core timescale from Law Dome and explains an apparent delayed response in tree rings to this volcanic event. A second volcanic event is detected in 1453 C.E. in both ice cores. We show for the first time ice core signals in Greenland and Antarctica from the strong eruption of Taupo in New Zealand in 232 C.E. In total, 133 volcanic events were extracted from WDC06A and 138 from NEEM-2011-S1, with 50 ice core signals—predominantly from tropical source volcanoes—identified simultaneously in both records. We assess the effect of large bipolar events on temperature-sensitive tree ring proxies. These two new volcanic records, synchronized with available ice core records to account for spatial variability in sulfate deposition, provide a basis for improving existing time series of volcanic forcing.
It’s hard to imagine a festival more friendly and intimate than the 4 Peaks Music Festival. Located a few miles outside of Bend, Oregon, 4 Peaks has been in business for nine years and, while growing very modestly, hasn’t lost its relaxed and welcoming vibe.The kid friendly nature of this event has obviously been embraced by parents around the region, as witnessed by the large number of kids enjoying and adding to the weekend’s events. A large area was designated the kid’s zone, where youngsters were encouraged to play instruments, juggle, make bubbles, and otherwise entertain themselves and others. Indeed, games for kids and adults, along with the small size of the festival, where a large percentage of faces in the crowd became familiar over the course of the weekend, gives 4 Peaks the feel of a nice backyard party when compared to a lot of other, bigger festivals.You could be camped in the far corner of the festival grounds, and it was still only a five-minute walk to get back to your spot. Musical acts switched back and forth between the main stage and the tented side stage, making for a natural flow back and forth and no musical downtime. Honey Don’t and the Student Loan String Band provided entertainment on Thursday for those arriving early for the weekend.Rain arrived on Friday, coming down hard enough to put an end to the Jeff Austin Band set. The music for the rest of the day would be playing inside the tent. It can always be a letdown when bands don’t get to play their allotted slot, but such is life at an outdoor festival. And the more intimate side stage ensured that everyone was up close and personal to experience a scorching Jackie Greene Band performance. He confidently led his band through a set of originals and offered some well-received covers. The Grateful Dead’s “New Speedway Boogie” was especially ripping, and the “Shakedown Street” > “Another Brick In The Wall” > Shakedown Street” extended more than a few jaws to the floor.After an encore of “Jack Straw” and the Beatles’ “Don’t Let Me Down,” the stage was quickly reformatted to allow Poor Man’s Whiskey to jam into the night. This set was dominated by cover songs and special guests. Poor Man’s Whiskey is well-known for applying their high octane bluegrass style to popular albums, including Pink Floyd’s Dark Side Of The Moon and, more recently, Paul Simon’s Graceland. They pulled from those two albums, and played numerous other rock, pop, and Americana songs with a seemingly endless stream of guests, which helped attendees forget all about the rain.On Saturday, as the skies slowly cleared, fans shed layers of clothes and soaked up stretches of sunshine. Early on, the main stage remained empty and sets were played on the side stage in the tent.Saturday featured an eclectic array of music that melded together nicely and included something for everyone. From Jellybread’s funky opening set that got bodies warmed up early in the day, to the all-female Della Mae offering soothing yet springy acoustic music that featured strong original compositions along with a choice Dolly Parton cover. Rabbit Wilde stared off on the mellow side but built in energy until dancers of all ages were getting down and stompin’ it out. Blues guitar legend Robben Ford, who has collaborated with Miles Davis, George Harrison and Joni Mitchell, offered up a strong set of driving blues numbers with his power trio.World’s Finest plays infections reggae-infused string music, and they had fans in the tent feeling the groove. Poor Man’s Whiskey has been a staple at 4 Peaks since the beginning, and fans showed their appreciation during their main stage set. Grant Farm, led by National Flatpicking Guitar Champion Tyler Grant, delivered a well-received set of their “Cosmic Americana.”Folks were excited all weekend for the Chris Robinson Brotherhood headlining set on Saturday, and they were not disappointed. There was a bit of a chill in the air but no sign of rain as the band took the stage. Although it’s getting rarer as this band continues to tour and make albums, there are still fans who assume they will get a show heavy with Black Crowes tunes, or even a nostalgia act. What they get instead is a set of highly original psychedelic rock n’ roll from a band that is clearly having fun and connecting with their audience. CRB staples like “Narcissus Soaking Wet” and “Beggar’s Moon” were accompanied by new songs such as “California Hymn.” A closing “Hard To Handle” had the entire crowd singing along.Portland darlings Crow and the Canyon had the honors of closing out Saturday’s side stage, and it was a solid celebration of American roots music. Much like the night before, special guests flowed to and from the stage. As glowing headphones started filtering into the crowd at the back of the tent (a silent disco and late-night movie were new additions to 4 Peaks this year), the band played on. It was apparent, whether you were listening to music from the stage or through the airwaves, that dancing and smiling had won the day.Sunday, after the last notes were played, festival organizer Stacy came out to thank everyone, and let people know that next year the festival would be held at a different location. Although the new location has yet to be determined, the family-friendly, neighborly vibe that organizers and fans have manifested going into their 10th year, is sure to remain intact.A full gallery of images from Greg Homolka Photography can be viewed below. Load remaining images
From 14 to 16 August 2017, the Institute of Public Health of the County of Istria conducted the 209th examination of the quality of the sea on the beaches in the County of Istria. A total of XNUMX measuring points were sampled at sea.Based on individual test results of microbiological indicators at 203 measuring points or 97,13% of samples, excellent bathing sea quality was recorded, while at six measuring points (Novigrad, Novigrad – Karpinjan; Rovinj, Hotel Rovinj – Below the hotel; Pula, Valsaline – FS Bay, Raša, AC Tunarica – Left side of the bay, Bale, Kolone – St. Jakov Bay, Tar-Vabriga, Tarska Vala) or in 2,87% of samples good sea quality was recorded.During sampling, sea temperature ranged from 23,2 0C to 27,0 0C while air temperature ranged from 21,8 0C to 30,0 0C. The results of individual tests are published on the website and are available via the following link: http://www.izor.hr/kakvoca/.