Le reseau de transport d’Afrique du Sud

first_imgL’Afrique du Sud possede les infrastructures de transport d’un pays entierement developpe. Les routes sont de rang mondial. Les reseaux aerien et ferre sont les plus etendus du continent. Et les ports du pays offrent une halte naturelle pour les bateaux en provenance ou a destination de l’Europe, des Ameriques, de l’Asie, de l’Asie Australe et les deux cotes de l’Afrique.Le secteur des transports a ete mis en lumiere par le gouvernement en tant que principal contributeur a la competitivite de l’Afrique du Sud sur les marches internationaux. On le perçoit de plus en plus comme un moteur de la croissance economique et du developpement social.La Coupe du Monde 2010 de la FifaL’Afrique du Sud prevoit d’investir 9 milliards de rands pour ameliorer et developper les infrastructures de transport dans neuf villes d’accueil afin de faire face a l’arrivee massive de visiteurs attendus pour la Coupe du Monde 2010 de la Fifa.Ces preparatifs concernent des modernisations majeures des aeroports du pays et des ameliorations du systeme de transport general, y compris un programme de recapitalisation des taxis, le renforcement du transport ferroviaire de passagers et la transformation du secteur des bus.Les ports et l’expeditionLes principales lignes maritimes longent le littoral de l’Afrique du Sud dans l’Atlantique Sud et l’Ocean Indien. Environ 96 % des exportations d’Afrique du Sud sont transportees par la mer et les sept ports commerciaux du pays sont des points d’entree pour le commerce entre l’Afrique du Sud et ses partenaires en Afrique Australe et servent aussi de plateformes pour les echanges en provenance et a destination de l’Europe, de l’Asie, des Ameriques et des cotes ouest et est de l’Afrique.L’Autorite Nationale des Ports Transnet detenue par l’etat gere les ports du pays. Ce sont : Richards Bay a Durban au KwaZulu-Natal, East London et Port Elizabeth dans la region d’Eastern Cape et Mossel Bay au CAp et Saldanha dans la region de Western Cape.Durban est le port commercial de l’Afrique et le plus grand en termes de containeurs en Afrique Australe, Richard’s Bay est le plus grand terminal de cargaison du monde. Ensemble, les ports d’Afrique du Sud ont gere 183 millions de tonnes de cargo en 2007 et d’importantes modernisations sont en cours pour augmenter la capacite de gestion.Un huitieme port commercial, le port de Nqura, est developpe au large de Port Elizabeth dans la province d’Eastern Cape, les premiers navires commerciaux devant arriver au port en 2009. Nqura devrait etre le terminal pour conteneurs le plus profond d’Afrique. C’est une partie essentielle de Coega, l’une des zones de developpement industriel strategiques d’Afrique du Sud.Les routesLe reseau routier total d’Afrique du Sud fait environ 754 000 kilometres, dont 9 600km de routes nationales. Le voyage de Messina a la frontiere nord de l’Afrique du Sud jusqu’au Cap au Sud se fait sur 2 000 km de routes bien entretenues.Environ 2 400 km de routes du pays sont payantes.Alors que le Ministere des transports est responsable de la politique generale, la construction et l’entretien des routes relevent de la responsabilite de l’Agence des Routes Nationales d’Afrique du Sud et de celle des neuf provinces et gouvernements locaux.Le chemin de ferL’Afrique du Sud possede un reseau de chemin de fer etendu, le 10eme plus long du monde raccorde aux reseaux de la region sub-saharienne.La societe publique Transnet Freight Rail est la voie de chemin de fer et le transporteur le plus important d’Afrique australe avec un reseau ferroviaire d’environ 22 000 km, dont 1 500 km sont des voies de transport. Les infrastructures ferroviaires de la societe qui relient les ports au reste de l’Afrique du Sud representent environ 80 % du total de l’Afrique.Le gouvernement a lance un projet d’amelioration de la securite ferroviaire et de regain des voyages par train en tant que choix de transport public viable. En 2008, le gouvernement a declare qu’il allait investir 19,5 milliards de rands par an sur quatre ans pour moderniser ses infrastructures portuaires et ferroviaires, la moitie environ etant destinee au secteur du fret ferroviaire.La South African Rail Commuter Corporation exploite les services de transport Metrorail au Cap, dans la province d’Eastern Cape, a Durban, dans Johannesburg et sa banlieue et a Pretoria, en ciblant principalement les sud-africains pauvres.Les touristes et les passagers aises peuvent voyager sur le Blue Train, l’un des trains de luxe les plus celebres du monde, alors que Shosholoza Meyl transporte environ quatre millions de passagers par an entre les principales villes du pays.Des services font aussi la liaison avec d’autres destinations d’Afrique australe au Zimbabwe, au Mozambique et au Swaziland.La liaison ferroviare a grande vitesse du GautrainLe Gautrain, un reseau ferroviaire a grande vitesse, reliera Johannesburg, Pretoria et l’aeroport international OR Tambo, allegeant le trafic sur l’autoroute Johannesburg-Pretoria en offrant aux voyageurs une alternative sure et viable au transport routier.Le projet de 25 milliards de rands est un partenariat public-prive entre le gouvernement de la province de Gauteng et la societe Bombelo Concession, un consortium canadien-français-sud-africain. On estime que le Gautrain aura cree environ 33 000 emplois d’ici 2009.Vingt-quatre trains feront le trajet a 160 km/heure, pendant 18 heures par jour et transportant au total pres de 135 000 passagers par jour. Les transports secondaires vers et depuis les gares et les destinations proches se feront en bus de luxe.Il y aura 10 gares, dont trois seront souterraines. La partie enterree fera environ 14 km de long et se trouvera jusqu’a 96 metres de profondeur a certains endroits.La premiere phase, la partie entre l’aeroport, Sandton et Midrand, devrait etre terminee a temps pour la Coupe du Monde 2010 de la Fifa, et la deuxieme phase d’ici 2011.Les aeroports et les compagnies aeriennesPlus de 50 compagnies aeriennes, effectuant pres de 230 000 atterrissages et transportant environ 33 millions de passagers par an, passent par les 10 principaux aeroports d’Afrique du Sud. Cela comprend les principaux aeroports de Johannesburg, du Cap et de Durban et les aeroports de Port Elizabeth, East London, George, Kimberly, Upington, Bloemfontein et Pilansberg.Vingt-et-un centres de controle aerien encadrent les operations qui couvrent 145 aeroports autorises avec pistes a revetement et plus de 580 aerodromes avec pistes sans revetement.La societe d’aeroports semi-privatisee d’Afrique du Sud (Acsa) est chargee de surveiller l’expansion des infrastructures des aeroports du pays.En 2007, l’Acsa a propose un programme de depenses en capital sur cinq ans d’un peu moins de 20 milliards de rands afin d’accueillir une nouvelle generation d’avions et de gerer un plus grand nombre de passagers.L’aeroport international OR Tambo de Johannesburg est l’aeroport les plus anime d’Afrique avec environ 8,9 millions de passagers au depart par an. Il a ete designe meilleur aeroport du continent par le Conseil International des Aeroports en 2007.L’aeroport Cape Town International, qui voit partir 3,8 millions de passagers par an, a ete elu premier aeroport d’Afrique lors des World Travel Awards pour la septieme annee consecutive.South African Airways, le transporteur national d’Afrique du Sud, dessert plus de 700 villes, y compris 20 destinations en Afrique, et assure l’entretien de nombreuses compagnies aeriennes.Derniere mise a jour de l’article : Septembre 2008SAinfo reporter. Sources (sites en langue anglaise) :Standard Bank: Economic Profile: South AfricaSouth Africa YearbookDepartment of TransportTransnet National Ports AuthorityCoega Development CorporationTransnet Freight RailSouth African Rail Commuter CorporationGautrain Rapid Rail LinkAirports Company South AfricaSouth African Airwayslast_img read more

Dalai Lama Joins Twitter – This Time It’s Verified

first_imgRelated Posts marshall kirkpatrick Tags:#news#NYT#social networks#web Twitter founder Evan Williams posted a message yesterday that was easy to misunderstand: “Met the Dalai Lama today in LA. Pitched him on using Twitter. He laughed.” Some one had already set up the account @DalaiLama though, one week before Williams met with the religious leader. Five hours after the seemingly dismissive tweet, the @DalaiLama account was listed as confirmed authentic and began publishing messages. This almost exactly one year after a hoax account (@OHHDL The Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama ) got 16,000 followers in one weekend before being declared a fake and shut down by Twitter Head Quarters. Just welcomed to the site moments ago by Twitter’s new VP of Communications Sean Garret, @DalaiLama appears to be real. Apparently laughing at Twitter doesn’t mean you aren’t going to use it. That’s a good attitude to have. The Dos and Don’ts of Brand Awareness Videoscenter_img A Comprehensive Guide to a Content Audit Guide to Performing Bulk Email Verification Facebook is Becoming Less Personal and More Pro…last_img read more

How to Direct Scenes Containing Minimal Dialogue

first_imgMaster one of a film director’s most important skills: Directing scenes that contain minimal dialogue.Top image from Warner Bros.It may sound like a cliche, but the old adage of “Show, Don’t Tell” is as relevant today as ever. As filmmakers, most of us understand the notion that film is a visual medium and therefore the best stories are often told by tapping into powerful visuals. However, many filmmakers fail to actually put this ideology into practice and their films run the risk of lacking depth.There are countless incredible films that have an abundance of dialogue, and the style or genre that you like to work in may call for more heavy dialogue scenes. Regardless, knowing how to direct scenes with minimal dialogue will inevitably improve your results not only in the more textural moments in your film, but also in the verbal moments too. When visual cues, metaphors, and powerful imagery couple together – the end product can really shine. For example, here are a few notable (and wildly dissimilar) light-on-dialogue scenes from classic films:From Terrence Malick’s Days of HeavenFrom Big Night, directed by Campbell Scott and Stanley TucciFrom Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space OdysseySo whether you are someone that likes to direct content with less dialogue, or simply want to improve your understanding of the visual storytelling as a whole, read on. These tips will help you get great results when transitioning into this type of storytelling.1. Imagine your scenes as dialogue.Image from Film DistrictA huge challenge for many filmmakers is conceptualizing and writing material without a lot of dialogue. More often than not, the dialogue-free scenes in films end up being nothing more than transitional moments with very little inherent value unto themselves, with the exception of helping to glue together other pieces in the film. The mistake that many filmmakers are prone to making is not conceptualizing their dialogue-free scene in the same way they would a verbally driven scene.What I often recommend to filmmakers is that they imagine there is dialogue in a scene that doesn’t have any. I will ask – What do you want to tell the audience? How does this move the story forward? What new character info do we get from this? The same kinds of questions you would consider when writing a dialogue scene… Once these questions have been answered, coming up with concepts for visuals that can illustrate them becomes much easier. You’re no longer just thinking about arbitrary images, but rather meaningful information in a visual format.2. Don’t overdo coverage.Image from Film FocusIn film, a lot of the time less is more. This notion applies very obviously to shooting films without a lot of dialogue, yet this is one area where many filmmakers go very wrong. Inexperienced directors will often feel like they need to build up a certain moment, and overcompensate for the fact that it has no dialogue by over-covering the scene. They will get a dozen angles that they don’t really need and actually prevent the viewer from focusing on some of the important visual cues in the scene.3. Find symbolism.Image from Warner Bros.Every shot that you show in your film needs to be important and relevant to your story or characters or both. While it may be relatively simple and straightforward to direct a dialogue-free scene that’s simply progressing the story, it’s more difficult to execute well on the character level. In order to really tap into something emotionally powerful, your visuals need to have symbolic and metaphorical meanings that ideally are subtle enough to hit the viewer on a subtextual level. It’s amazing how powerful subtext is to the average viewer, and many dialogue-free scenes that make use of symbolic or metaphorical imagery are able to convey far more to the audience than any amount of dialogue would be able to. Always look for ways to add meaning to your scenes through the use of objects, colors, wardrobe, props, or any other vehicle that may allow you to do so.4. Break up important moments.Image from IMDbAnother big trap that filmmakers tend to fall into is trying to cram too much information into a single non-verbal moment. So for example, the filmmaker might want to convey a detail about one of their characters (let’s say that the character is a recovering alcoholic that relapses). That same filmmaker might decide to create one long visual scene that somehow shows the character being tempted by alcohol and then giving in… But placing too much information in one scene like this can feel very cheesy and soap-opera like in many ways. The better option is to break up the moment and tell it in two or three pieces.By planting seeds for the audience and leaving bread crumbs, so to speak, your viewers will be led to their own conclusions about your story and characters — and that will give your film a deeper meaning to them. In the example above, if you were to show a few moments leading up to the character starting to drink again (let’s say, having wine spilled on them, watching their boss drink in front of them, etc.), you are able to nudge the audience to the conclusion you want them to draw without being too forceful.5. Show more characterImage from PixarWhen in doubt, always focus on your character development when working with non-verbal material. The most interesting and dynamic character information can be portrayed best in scenes without dialogue, so always take advantage of this fact. Ask yourself what you can show your audience in this dialogue-free scene, moment, or film that you wouldn’t otherwise be able to in a scene with other characters. Maybe you choose to show your main character alone, and give insight into who they are behind closed doors… Whatever choice you make will work as long as it is centered around conveying character detail in an interesting and visually motivated way.If you’re looking for insight into the world of directing, check out these articles from the PremiumBeat blog:Honing Your Craft: Find Your Voice as a DirectorFilmmaking Tips: Becoming a More Versatile ArtistFeature Filmmaking: Creative Problem SolvingWhat are some of your favorite dialogue-free scenes? How do you approach this style of filmmaking? Let us know in the comments below.last_img read more